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Dr. Thomas Parks Dr. Thomas Parks
Professor Department of Neurology and Anatomy
University of Utah School of Medicine
Salt Lake City, UT

Thomas N. Parks, Ph.D. is currently the George and Lorna Winder Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy at the University of Utah Medical School. Dr. Parks joined the faculty at the University of Utah Medical School in 1978 as an Assistant Professor. Dr. Parks received a Ph.D. in Psychobiology from Yale University. He was a postdoctoral fellow in Development Neurology at the University of Virginia Medical School.

Dr. Parks, a successful entrepreneur, is a co-founder of NPS Pharmaceuticals (www.npsp.com). Two rounds of venture capital financing were completed in 1992, followed by an initial public offering of stock in 1994. Secondary public offerings of stock were completed in 1996, 2000, and 2002, along with a private offering of stock in 2000 and a convertible debt offering in 2003. In December 1999, NPS Pharmaceuticals and Allelix Biopharmaceuticals of Toronto, Canada merged. NPS currently has operations in the U.S. and Canada with approximately 335 employees.

EDUCATION/TRAINING
INSTITUTION  DEGREE  YEAR(s) FIELD OF STUDY
University of California at Irvine  B.S.  1972 Biology
Yale University  Ph.D.  1978 Psychobiology
University of Virginia  Postdoc  1977-8 Developmental neurobiology

POSITIONS
 1977 Lecturer in Psychology, Yale University
 1978-83 Assistant Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine
 1983-87 Associate Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine
 1987-92 Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine
 1992-present George & Lorna Winder Professor of Neuroscience
Chairman, Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine
 1986-present Co-Founder and Director, NPS Pharmaceuticals Inc., Salt Lake City, UT
 1987-88 Vice President, NPS Pharmaceuticals Inc., Salt Lake City, UT
 1986-90 Member, Hearing Research Study Section, NIH
 1993-4 Member, Presidential Faculty Fellows Selection Panel, NSF
 1993-2000 Claude Pepper MERIT Award, NIDCD
 1996- Member, Scientific Review Board, National Organization for Hearing Research
 2000-5 Member, Editorial Board, Hearing Research
 2003-5 Secretary-Treasurer, Association of Medical School Neuroscience Department Chairs
 2003-- Executive Director, The Brain Institute (University of Utah)
 2005-- Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Q Therapeutics Inc., Salt Lake City

Funded Projects During Past 3 Years

ACTIVE
5 RO1 DC00144-25 (T.N. Parks, PI) 4/1/79-8/30/05 50%
National Institute for Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders $235,000
"Cell interactions in the developing auditory system.
The specific aims of this project involve understanding the development of the specialized AMPA receptors of brainstem auditory neurons and specialized calcium-regulatory mechanisms used by these neurons.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
Parks, T.N., E.W. Rubel, A.N. Popper and R.R. Fay, Eds. (2004) Plasticity in the Auditory System. Springer
Handbook of Auditory Research, Vol. 23, Springer-Verlag, New York, 323 pp.

Rubel, E.W., T. N. Parks and L. Zirpel (2004) Assembling, connecting and innervating the cochlear nucleus. In: Parks, T. N. et al., Eds., Plasticity in the Auditory System, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Vol. 23, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 8-48.

Ryugo, D.K, and T.N. Parks (2003) Primary innervation of the avian and mammalian cochlear nucleus. Br. Res.Bull. 60:435-456.

Sugden S, L. Zirpel, C. Dietrich, and T. N. Parks (2002) Development of the specialized AMPA receptors of auditory neurons. Journal of Neurobiology 52:189-202.

Zirpel, L. and T.N. Parks (2001) Zinc inhibition of group I mGluR-mediated calcium homeostasis in auditory neurons. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 2: 180-187.

Zirpel, L., M.A. Janowiak, C. Veltri and T. N. Parks (2000) AMPA receptor-mediated calcium-dependent CREB phophorylation promotes survival in a subpopulation of activity-deprived auditory neurons, Journal of Neuroscience 20:6267-6275.

Zirpel, L., M.A. Janowiak, D.A. Taylor and T. N. Parks (2000) Developmental changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated calcium homeostasis. Journal of Comparative Neurology 421:95-106.

Parks, T.N. (2000) The AMPA receptors of auditory neurons. Hearing Research 147:77-91.

Ravindranathan, A., S.D. Donevan, S. Sugden, A. Greig, M.S. Rao and T. N. Parks (2000) Contrasting molecular compositions and channel properties of AMPA receptors on chick auditory and brainstem motor neurons. Journal of Physiology 523.3:667-684.

Hack, N.J., M.C. Wride, K.M. Charters, S.B. Kater and T. N. Parks (2000) Developmentally-regulated subcellular localization of calretinin. Journal of Neuroscience 20:RC67.

Hack, N.J., B. Billups, P.B. Guthrie, J. H. Rogers, E. M. Muir, T. N. Parks, and S.B. Kater (2000) Green fluorescent protein as a quantitative tool. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 95:177-184.

Greig, A., S.D. Donevan, T.J. Mujtaba, T. N. Parks and M.S. Rao (2000) Characterization of the AMPA-activated receptors present on motoneurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 74:179-191.

Parks, T.N. (1999) Cochlear influences on development of the brainstem auditory system. In: R.L. Hyson and F. Johnson (Eds.), The Biology of Early Influences, Academic Press, pp. 15-34.

Lee, J.C., A. Greig, A. Ravindranathan, T.N. Parks and M.S. Rao (1998) Molecular analysis of AMPA receptors: Subunit composition, editing, and calcium flux determination in small amounts of tissue. Brain Research Protocols 3:142-154.

Ravindranathan, A., T. N. Parks and M.S. Rao (1997) New isoforms of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR4: molecular cloning, regional distribution and developmental analysis. Molecular Brain Research 50:143-153.

Parks, T.N., R.A. Code, D.A. Taylor, D. Solum, K.I. Schwartz, D. M. Jacobowitz and L. M. Winsky (1997) Calretinin expression in the chick brainstem auditory system develops and is maintained independently of cochlear nerve input. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 371:112-121.

Solum, D., D. Hughes, M. S. Major and T.N. Parks (1997) Prevention of normally-occurring and deafferentation-induced neuronal death in chick brain stem auditory nuclei by periodic blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors. Journal of Neuroscience 17:4744-4751.

Parks, T.N. (1997) Effects of early deafness on development of central auditory neurons. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 106:36-41.

Ravindranathan, A, T.N. Parks, and M.S. Rao (1996) "Flip" and "flop" isoforms of chick AMPA receptor subunits: Cloning and analysis of expression patterns. NeuroReport 7:2707-2711.

Zhou, N., D.A. Taylor and T.N. Parks (1995) Cobalt-permeable non-NMDA receptors in the developing chick brainstem auditory system. NeuroReport 6:2273-2276.

Heck, S.D., C.J. Siok, K. J. Krapcho, P.R. Kelbaugh, P.F. Thadeio, M.J. Welch, R.D. Williams, A. H. Ganong, M.E. Kelly, A.M. Lanzetti, W. R. Gray, D. Phillips, T. N. Parks, H. Jackson, M.K. Ahlijanian, N.A. Saccomano and R.A. Volkmann (1994) Functional consequences of post-translational isomerization of Ser46 in a calcium channel toxin. Science 266:1065-1068.

Parks, T. N. and D. A. Taylor (1993) Altered distribution of synaptic densities at aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus. Neuroscience Letters 150:117-121.

Zhou, N., L. Hammerland and T. N. Parks (1993) -D-glutamylaminomethyl sulfonic acid (GAMS) distinguishes kainic acid- from AMPA-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes expressing chick brain glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology 32:767-775.

Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1993) Maintenance of pharmacologically-immature glutamate receptors by aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus. Brain Research 628: 149-154.

Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1992) Developmental changes in the effects of drugs acting at NMDA or non-NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission in the chick cochlear nucleus. Developmental Brain Research 67:145-152.

Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1991) Pharmacology of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission in nucleus laminaris of the chick. Hearing Research, 52:195-200.

Parks, T. N., L. D. Artman, N. Alasti and E. F. Nemeth (1991) Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Brain Research 552:13-22.

Parks, T. N., A. L. Mueller, L.D. Artman, B. C. Albensi, E. F. Nemeth, H. Jackson, V. J. Jasys, N. A. Saccomano and R. A. Volkmann (1991) Arylamine toxins from funnel-web spider (Agelenopsis aperta) venom antagonize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function in mammalian brain. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266: 21523-21529.

Parks, T. N., D. A. Taylor and H. Jackson (1990) Adaptations of synaptic form in an aberrant projection to the avian cochlear nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience 10:975-984.

Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1990) Anticonvulsant action of an arylamine-containing fraction from Agelenopsis spider venom. Brain Research 526:338-341.

Haack, J., J. Rivier, T. N. Parks, E. E. Mena, L. J. Cruz and B. M. Olivera (1990) Conantokin-T: A gamma-carboxyglutamate containing peptide with NMDA antagonist activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265:6025-6029.

Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1989) Spider toxins: Recent applications in neurobiology. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:405-414.

Saccomano, N.A., R.A. Volkmann, H. Jackson and T.N. Parks (1989) Polyamine spider toxins: Unique pharmacological tools. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry 24:287-293.

Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1988) Induction of novel functional afferents to the chick cochlear nucleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 271:106-114.

Rubel, E. W. and T. N. Parks (1988) Organization and development of the avian brain stem auditory system. In: G. M. Edelman et al. (Eds.) Auditory Function: Neurobiological Bases of Hearing , New York, J. Wiley, pp. 3-92.

Parks, T. N., S. Gill and H. Jackson (1987) Experience-independent development of dendritic form in the avian nucleus laminaris. Journal of Comparative Neurology 260:312-319.

Parks, T. N., H. Jackson and J. W. Conlee (1987) Axon-target cell interactions in the developing auditory system. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 21:309-340.

Jackson, H., E.F. Nemeth and T.N. Parks (1985) Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediating synaptic transmission in the avian cochlear nucleus: Effects of kynurenic acid, dipicolinic acid and streptomycin. Neuroscience 16:171-179.

Parks, T. N. and H. Jackson (1984) A developmental gradient of dendritic loss in the avian cochlear nucleus occurring independently of primary afferents. Journal of Comparative Neurology 227:459-466.

Parks, T. N., P. Collins and J. W. Conlee (1983) Morphology and origin of axonal endings in nucleus laminaris of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Neurology 214:32-42.

Conlee, J. W. and T. N. Parks (1983) Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis). Journal of Comparative Neurology 217:216-226.

Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1982) Functional synapse elimination in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in cochlear-nerve axon branching. Journal of Neuroscience 2:1736-1743.

Parks, T.N. (1981) Changes in dendritic length and organization in nuc. laminaris after unilateral otocyst ablation in chick embryos. Journal of Comparative Neurology 202:47-57.

Conlee, J.W. and T. N. Parks (1981) Age- and position-dependent effects of monaural acoustic deprivation in nuc. magnocellularis of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Neurology 202:373-384.

Parks, T.N. (1981) Morphology and origin of axosomatic endings in an avian cochlear nucleus: Nucleus magnocellularis of the chicken. Journal of Comparative Neurology 203:425-440.

Parks, T.N. (1979) Afferent influences on the development of the brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: Otocyst ablation. Journal of Comparative Neurology 183:665-678.

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