||FIELD OF STUDY
|University of California at Irvine
|University of Virginia
||Lecturer in Psychology, Yale University
||Assistant Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School
||Associate Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School
||Professor of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine
||George & Lorna Winder Professor of Neuroscience
Chairman, Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Utah School
||Co-Founder and Director, NPS Pharmaceuticals Inc., Salt Lake
||Vice President, NPS Pharmaceuticals Inc., Salt Lake City,
||Member, Hearing Research Study Section, NIH
||Member, Presidential Faculty Fellows Selection Panel, NSF
||Claude Pepper MERIT Award, NIDCD
||Member, Scientific Review Board, National Organization for
||Member, Editorial Board, Hearing Research
||Secretary-Treasurer, Association of Medical School Neuroscience
||Executive Director, The Brain Institute (University of Utah)
||Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Q Therapeutics Inc., Salt
Funded Projects During Past 3 Years
5 RO1 DC00144-25 (T.N. Parks, PI) 4/1/79-8/30/05 50%
National Institute for Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders $235,000
"Cell interactions in the developing auditory system.
The specific aims of this project involve understanding the development
of the specialized AMPA receptors of brainstem auditory neurons and specialized
calcium-regulatory mechanisms used by these neurons.
Parks, T.N., E.W. Rubel, A.N. Popper and R.R. Fay, Eds. (2004) Plasticity
in the Auditory System. Springer
Handbook of Auditory Research, Vol. 23, Springer-Verlag, New York, 323 pp.
Rubel, E.W., T. N. Parks and L. Zirpel (2004) Assembling,
connecting and innervating the cochlear nucleus. In: Parks, T. N. et al.,
Eds., Plasticity in the Auditory System, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research,
Vol. 23, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 8-48.
Ryugo, D.K, and T.N. Parks (2003) Primary innervation of
the avian and mammalian cochlear nucleus. Br. Res.Bull. 60:435-456.
Sugden S, L. Zirpel, C. Dietrich, and T. N. Parks (2002)
Development of the specialized AMPA receptors of auditory neurons. Journal
of Neurobiology 52:189-202.
Zirpel, L. and T.N. Parks (2001) Zinc inhibition of group
I mGluR-mediated calcium homeostasis in auditory neurons. Journal of the
Association for Research in Otolaryngology 2: 180-187.
Zirpel, L., M.A. Janowiak, C. Veltri and T. N. Parks (2000)
AMPA receptor-mediated calcium-dependent CREB phophorylation promotes survival
in a subpopulation of activity-deprived auditory neurons, Journal of Neuroscience
Zirpel, L., M.A. Janowiak, D.A. Taylor and T. N. Parks
(2000) Developmental changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated
calcium homeostasis. Journal of Comparative Neurology 421:95-106.
Parks, T.N. (2000) The AMPA receptors of auditory neurons.
Hearing Research 147:77-91.
Ravindranathan, A., S.D. Donevan, S. Sugden, A. Greig,
M.S. Rao and T. N. Parks (2000) Contrasting molecular compositions and channel
properties of AMPA receptors on chick auditory and brainstem motor neurons.
Journal of Physiology 523.3:667-684.
Hack, N.J., M.C. Wride, K.M. Charters, S.B. Kater and T.
N. Parks (2000) Developmentally-regulated subcellular localization of calretinin.
Journal of Neuroscience 20:RC67.
Hack, N.J., B. Billups, P.B. Guthrie, J. H. Rogers, E.
M. Muir, T. N. Parks, and S.B. Kater (2000) Green fluorescent protein as
a quantitative tool. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 95:177-184.
Greig, A., S.D. Donevan, T.J. Mujtaba, T. N. Parks and
M.S. Rao (2000) Characterization of the AMPA-activated receptors present
on motoneurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 74:179-191.
Parks, T.N. (1999) Cochlear influences on development of
the brainstem auditory system. In: R.L. Hyson and F. Johnson (Eds.), The
Biology of Early Influences, Academic Press, pp. 15-34.
Lee, J.C., A. Greig, A. Ravindranathan, T.N. Parks and
M.S. Rao (1998) Molecular analysis of AMPA receptors: Subunit composition,
editing, and calcium flux determination in small amounts of tissue. Brain
Research Protocols 3:142-154.
Ravindranathan, A., T. N. Parks and M.S. Rao (1997) New
isoforms of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR4: molecular cloning, regional
distribution and developmental analysis. Molecular Brain Research 50:143-153.
Parks, T.N., R.A. Code, D.A. Taylor, D. Solum, K.I. Schwartz,
D. M. Jacobowitz and L. M. Winsky (1997) Calretinin expression in the chick
brainstem auditory system develops and is maintained independently of cochlear
nerve input. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 371:112-121.
Solum, D., D. Hughes, M. S. Major and T.N. Parks (1997)
Prevention of normally-occurring and deafferentation-induced neuronal death
in chick brain stem auditory nuclei by periodic blockade of AMPA/kainate
receptors. Journal of Neuroscience 17:4744-4751.
Parks, T.N. (1997) Effects of early deafness on development
of central auditory neurons. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
Ravindranathan, A, T.N. Parks, and M.S. Rao (1996) "Flip"
and "flop" isoforms of chick AMPA receptor subunits: Cloning and
analysis of expression patterns. NeuroReport 7:2707-2711.
Zhou, N., D.A. Taylor and T.N. Parks (1995) Cobalt-permeable
non-NMDA receptors in the developing chick brainstem auditory system. NeuroReport
Heck, S.D., C.J. Siok, K. J. Krapcho, P.R. Kelbaugh, P.F.
Thadeio, M.J. Welch, R.D. Williams, A. H. Ganong, M.E. Kelly, A.M. Lanzetti,
W. R. Gray, D. Phillips, T. N. Parks, H. Jackson, M.K. Ahlijanian, N.A.
Saccomano and R.A. Volkmann (1994) Functional consequences of post-translational
isomerization of Ser46 in a calcium channel toxin. Science 266:1065-1068.
Parks, T. N. and D. A. Taylor (1993) Altered distribution
of synaptic densities at aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus.
Neuroscience Letters 150:117-121.
Zhou, N., L. Hammerland and T. N. Parks (1993) -D-glutamylaminomethyl
sulfonic acid (GAMS) distinguishes kainic acid- from AMPA-mediated responses
in Xenopus oocytes expressing chick brain glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology
Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1993) Maintenance of pharmacologically-immature
glutamate receptors by aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus.
Brain Research 628: 149-154.
Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1992) Developmental changes in
the effects of drugs acting at NMDA or non-NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission
in the chick cochlear nucleus. Developmental Brain Research 67:145-152.
Zhou, N. and T. N. Parks (1991) Pharmacology of excitatory
amino acid neurotransmission in nucleus laminaris of the chick. Hearing
Parks, T. N., L. D. Artman, N. Alasti and E. F. Nemeth
(1991) Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced elevation in cytosolic
calcium in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Brain Research 552:13-22.
Parks, T. N., A. L. Mueller, L.D. Artman, B. C. Albensi,
E. F. Nemeth, H. Jackson, V. J. Jasys, N. A. Saccomano and R. A. Volkmann
(1991) Arylamine toxins from funnel-web spider (Agelenopsis aperta) venom
antagonize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function in mammalian brain. Journal
of Biological Chemistry 266: 21523-21529.
Parks, T. N., D. A. Taylor and H. Jackson (1990) Adaptations
of synaptic form in an aberrant projection to the avian cochlear nucleus.
Journal of Neuroscience 10:975-984.
Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1990) Anticonvulsant action
of an arylamine-containing fraction from Agelenopsis spider venom. Brain
Haack, J., J. Rivier, T. N. Parks, E. E. Mena, L. J. Cruz
and B. M. Olivera (1990) Conantokin-T: A gamma-carboxyglutamate containing
peptide with NMDA antagonist activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265:6025-6029.
Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1989) Spider toxins: Recent
applications in neurobiology. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:405-414.
Saccomano, N.A., R.A. Volkmann, H. Jackson and T.N. Parks
(1989) Polyamine spider toxins: Unique pharmacological tools. Annual Reports
in Medicinal Chemistry 24:287-293.
Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1988) Induction of novel functional
afferents to the chick cochlear nucleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology
Rubel, E. W. and T. N. Parks (1988) Organization and development
of the avian brain stem auditory system. In: G. M. Edelman et al. (Eds.)
Auditory Function: Neurobiological Bases of Hearing , New York, J. Wiley,
Parks, T. N., S. Gill and H. Jackson (1987) Experience-independent
development of dendritic form in the avian nucleus laminaris. Journal of
Comparative Neurology 260:312-319.
Parks, T. N., H. Jackson and J. W. Conlee (1987) Axon-target
cell interactions in the developing auditory system. Current Topics in Developmental
Jackson, H., E.F. Nemeth and T.N. Parks (1985) Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate
receptors mediating synaptic transmission in the avian cochlear nucleus:
Effects of kynurenic acid, dipicolinic acid and streptomycin. Neuroscience
Parks, T. N. and H. Jackson (1984) A developmental gradient
of dendritic loss in the avian cochlear nucleus occurring independently
of primary afferents. Journal of Comparative Neurology 227:459-466.
Parks, T. N., P. Collins and J. W. Conlee (1983) Morphology
and origin of axonal endings in nucleus laminaris of the chicken. Journal
of Comparative Neurology 214:32-42.
Conlee, J. W. and T. N. Parks (1983) Late appearance and
deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear
nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis). Journal of Comparative Neurology 217:216-226.
Jackson, H. and T. N. Parks (1982) Functional synapse elimination
in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in
cochlear-nerve axon branching. Journal of Neuroscience 2:1736-1743.
Parks, T.N. (1981) Changes in dendritic length and organization
in nuc. laminaris after unilateral otocyst ablation in chick embryos. Journal
of Comparative Neurology 202:47-57.
Conlee, J.W. and T. N. Parks (1981) Age- and position-dependent
effects of monaural acoustic deprivation in nuc. magnocellularis of the
chicken. Journal of Comparative Neurology 202:373-384.
Parks, T.N. (1981) Morphology and origin of axosomatic
endings in an avian cochlear nucleus: Nucleus magnocellularis of the chicken.
Journal of Comparative Neurology 203:425-440.
Parks, T.N. (1979) Afferent influences on the development
of the brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: Otocyst ablation. Journal
of Comparative Neurology 183:665-678.